The purpose of the article is to present an analytical system that allows users to process data necessary for an industrial risk analysis and management, to monitor the level of industrial safety in a given site, and to fulfil essential tasks within the field of occupational safety. This system’s implementation will make the industrial safety management at industrial sites more effective. Multifactorial, probabilistic, determined models of accidents’ hazard and severity indexes are integrated into the computing core of the Information and Analytical System. Then, statistical methods determine the risk assessment of occupational injuries and diseases. The Information and Analytical System for Hazard Level Assessment and Forecasting Risk of Emergencies in the Republic of Kazakhstan allows users to work efficiently with large volumes of information and form a united analytical electronic report about the state of industrial safety. The main objective of the monitoring system is to conduct a comprehensive analysis and assessment of the state of accidents, traumas and occupational sickness rates at industrial sites, the results being classified by the degree of hazard and insalubrity of manufacture. The introduction of the computer monitoring system in the specialized services of the Emergency Management Committee and the Ministry of Investment and Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and at industrial enterprises throughout the country, will allow users to analyse the state of the industrial and occupational safety constantly and objectively; as a consequence, the implementation will go a long way towards comprehensively approaching the task of increasing safety levels at industrial sites.
This paper analyses the impact of academic achievement on future salaries by looking into the grade point average (GPA)-earnings relationship for graduates of a leading Russian university. The study is based on pooled cross-sectional graduate survey data for 2014–2015. The issue of how student academic achievement impacts future labour market rewards is analysed through academic, demographic and labour market factors. We found that there is a significant positive impact of GPA on salaries of BA graduates (9–12% wage premium for an additional GPA point) and an insignificant or negative impact for MA programmes graduates. The study depicts that this negative effect can be partially explained by employment sector-specific variables. Among the main factors which positively affect earnings of graduates is work experience. Graduates who combined study and work achieve a 30% wage premium. However, there is no evidence that combining study and work affects student academic achievement, even for those who combined studies with full-time job. Despite the higher GPA of female students, male graduates’ earnings are 18% higher. Gender wage differences can be explained by gender distribution by the sector of employment: the over-representation of women in the low-paid education and science sectors and their under-representation in entrepreneurship and corporate sector.
Non-renewable fixed-term contracts are becoming more used instead of the traditional Russian model of open-ended employment. The authors examine the influence of institutional and organizational factors on the use of fixed-term contracts in Russia with data from a Sur-vey covering 3313 enterprises for the years 2009 to 2011. Probit and Tobit regressions are used to test several hypotheses about the use of fixed-term contracts derived from the litera-ture. The results indicate that state-owned and unionized enterprises are more likely to use fixed-term contracts; and a high level of perceived dismissal protection for permanent work-ers is positively associated with fixed-term contracts use. The incidence and intensity of fixed-term contracts are lower at enterprises with flexible wages. A significant impact of or-ganizational factors is confirmed for fixed-term contracts. Enterprises use less fixed-term contracts, if they have workers with tenure from 5 to 10 years and high job complexity.
This paper analyzes the impact of the recent retirement age increase in the Russian Federation on the level of absolute income poverty of the population in the period 2018–2028. The main research method is microsimulation analysis. The results of the work show that the level of absolute income poverty of the population of the Russian Federation is almost neutral to the retirement age increase. However, the poverty rate of pre-pensioners as a result of raising the retirement age may slightly increase. The magnitude of the effect varies depending on the education of pre-pensioners.
Though foreign language is widely accepted as an important form of human capital and a factor of economic growth, the labour market outcomes for foreign language skills in developing economies remain understudied. This research explores the returns to different levels of foreign language skills in the Russian labour market and tries do disentangle the differences in return associated with job characteristics.
Based on a representative Russian survey data (RLMS-HSE) for 2008-2017, this study adopts several Mincer type models, adding controls for job characteristics, which are estimated using Ordinary Least Squares technique. By providing separate estimates for various professional groups, this research addresses the heterogeneity of returns which are associated with job characteristics.
The results indicate positive wage premium for foreign language skills in Russia which approximately equals to 9% when controlling for job-related characteristics. Moreover, wage premium for advanced level of knowledge reaches 24%. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the economic returns across age groups, levels of education, and occupations. The highest return to foreign language skills is obtained by managers and results to be 13%. For elementary occupations the estimate appears to be insignificant which proves that return to foreign language exists only for a limited number of specific jobs
The article presents the results of the analysis of the impact of changes in the pension legislation adopted in October 2018 on the main parameters of the mandatory pension insurance system. It is shown that without raising the retirement age and maintaining the current structure of the insurance pension system until 2050, it would be possible to ensure the annual indexation of pensions in terms of inflation even with minimal economic growth. However, to maintain the ratio of the average pension to the average wage at the current level, raising the retirement age is only one of the necessary measures to stabilize the situation in the period up to 2028. The paper presents the impact of reducing informal employment, increasing the requirements for the length of insurance tenure and increasing the minimum number of individual pension points on the replacement rate. The estimates of tax rates and budget transfer amounts at which it is possible to ensure the replacement rate at the current level (33%) or increase it to 40% are given in for the period up to 2050.
The study is devoted to employment of recent vocational graduates. The proportion of middle-school graduates in vocational enrollment has increased essentially over the past decade, which indicates that the choice of vocational trajectories, on average, is now made at lower age. It was established based on the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations that on average 44 percent of students combined work and study in 2010–2015. Vocational students mostly combine and work and study because of financial constraints, their study-work rarely being related to their major. Later on, when making a transition from education to the labor market, vocational graduates have to accept one of the first job offers as they cannot afford a longer job search. The second part of the study draws upon the findings from the 2010–2015 sampling survey of graduate employment administered by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). It is shown that combining work and study has positive effects on employability of graduates as well as on the size of their starting salaries. In addition, self-funded students and those who combine study with major-related work are more likely to get employed in their field of study after graduation. Education-job mismatch among graduates is found to entail income “penalties”.
Nowadays tax incentives are widely used in many countries including Russia. Nevertheless, this tax instrument has a number of significant disadvantages. Firstly, they decrease budget revenues, and at the same time the efficiency of tax incentives usually is not estimated and seems to be not positive. Secondly, a lot of tax incentives can be replaced by more comfortable types of direct expenditures. Finally, as a rule, from an equity standpoint tax exemption is not a good, as recipients of tax exemption are usually wealthy people. This paper discusses main theoretical aspects of tax incentives (with focus on personal income taxation), provides a review of the world taxation practices and analyzes the tax exemptions in Russia. The results of analyses allow to outline the recommendations intended to improve the personal income taxation.